Comparison of synthesizer plugin formats
Marketing people spread a lot of misinformation on the web. We don't get paid by Steinberg, Apple or AVID and spent over 20 years with developing synthesizer plugins as a full-time job. We got deep knowledge about the different interfaces.
The table with the most important plugin formats should help you to decide which one is the right one for you. It is a summary of facts, not opinions. Some of these facts are only known by developers and concealed by the marketing.
What you should know:
- Unlike what marketing people advertise there is no significant difference in sound quality between the plugin formats in practice. All of them sound excellent.
- All plugin-formats got a very similar feature-set.
- There are also only very small differences in CPU performance.
- However, there are big differences in stability and reliability.
What plugin-format do you recommend?
Newer does not always mean better. :-(
We currently recommend using the VST2 format for synthesizers and Midi-plugins if your DAW supports several formats. While VST3 works well for effects, it is not a plugin-format that is very suitable for complex synthesizers: Sadly, Steinberg's VST3 format is the only one that does not come with full Midi support. As a result, the developers need to do ugly workarounds to make things work as expected, or we are forced to drop features.
The AudioUnit format is technically very similar to VST2, but is not as reliable. You may already have experienced it for yourself, that you needed to reboot your Mac before your DAW detects a recently installed AudioUnit. So if your're on the Mac and your DAW supports several plugin formats you really should concider using VST instead. VST is also a cross-platform format. This means that your songs and patches most likely do also work on PC (if you should decide to migrate one day or got a friend that uses a PC).
In a couple of years the new CLAP format might be a good replacement for VST2.
|available for Windows||yes||yes||no||yes||yes||yes|
|available for macOS||yes||yes||yes||yes||yes||yes|
|available for Linux||yes||yes||no||no||no||yes|
|64 bit Intel support||yes||yes||yes||yes||no||yes|
|32 bit Intel support||yes||yes||yes||yes||yes||yes|
|M1 ARM support||technically possible||yes||yes||since 2.4.1||no||yes|
|works well for synthesizers||yes||technical limitations||yes||yes||yes||yes|
|works well for effects||yes||yes||yes||yes||yes||yes|
|full MIDI support||yes||no||yes||yes||yes||yes|
|supported by most DAWs||yes||yes||only Mac||only ProTools||only ProTools||Bitwig, Reaper, ...|
|CPU usage||very low overhead||very complex interface||good||iLok requires CPU||iLok requires CPU||very low overhead|
|stablility (plugins)||excellent||complexity causes issues||wrappers are used||possible driver issues||possible driver issues||it is still new|
|robust and reliable technology||excellent since VST2.4||strange interface design||unreliable AU detection||requires iLok||requires iLok||yes|
|MIDI 2.0 support||yes||since VST 3.7||yes||yes||no||yes|
|MPE support||yes||yes||yes||yes||no plugins available||yes|
|Properly working event-system||yes||no||no||yes||yes||yes|
|future proof||for several years||yes||yes||competing formats||deprecated||it is still new|
What will happen in the future?
VST2 will slowly disappear, as Steinberg does not longer license VST2 to new developers. But this will be a very slow process over many years.
RTAS is a dead format, as it does not come with 64 bit support.
It is likely that the market share of AAX will drop further, since development is complicated and there are competing plugin formats. Dongles and iLok are not popular among customers either.
Steinberg's VST3 SDK was and is still not popular among developers. Even after a decade VST3 still has not replaced VST2. The main reason is that native VST3 development is much more difficult and time-consuming than for the competing formats. To get around this, the majority of developers use abstraction-frameworks. This means in practise, that VST3-exclusive features are rarely supported.
The future of AudioUnits is pretty safe - at least as long as Apple does not decide to break or drop things.
The CLAP is rather popular among developers, since it is simple, well-designed, cross-platform and has very fair licensing condidtions. It is currently raising the market-share.
Must I migrate to VST3?
If you don't use a DAW from Steinberg - no. For you as a musician there is no reason at all to panic. You don't need to quickly migrate from VST2 to VST3, since all DAWs that currently support VST2 will continue to support VST2 also in the foreseeable future. The developers got valid licensing contracts for this. From the DAW's side VST2 support has only been dropped for Cubase (Mac in M1 mode) and Native Instruments Maschine (Mac in M1 mode). Unlike Steinberg the competing DAW developers got no interst at all to drop VST2 support quickly, as this would mean, that they would annoy a massive number of customers and would lose income.